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Venezuela’s Attempt to Purchase Bolívar Artifacts from Florida Resident Was “Commercial Activity” Not Subject to Sovereign Immunity

In Devengoechea v. Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, No. 16-16816 (11th Cir. May 10, 2018), the Eleventh Circuit held that the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act’s “commercial activity” exception to sovereign immunity applied to Venezuela’s alleged failure to return or pay for a collection of artifacts owned by a Florida resident. Plaintiff Ricardo Devengoechea, a citizen of the United...

No Willful Violation of Fair Credit Reporting Act If Report Technically Accurate, Even If Misleading, Given Split on “Maximum Possible Accuracy”

In Pedro v. TransUnion LLC, 2017 WL 3623926 (11th Cir. Aug. 24, 2017), the Eleventh Circuit concluded that a consumer reporting agency did not adopt an “objectively unreasonable interpretation” of the Fair Credit Reporting Act (“FCRA”) when it stated on a consumer’s credit report that she was an authorized user of her parents’ credit card account (which later went into default) and...

Plaintiff in Sexual-Orientation Discrimination Case Files En Banc Petition, Highlighted by Newly Created Circuit Split

A high-profile Seventh Circuit decision and a circuit split may increase the likelihood of the Eleventh Circuit granting rehearing en banc in Evans v. Georgia Regional Hospital, a decision we covered here last month.  A divided panel in Evans held that—unlike discrimination based on gender non-conformity—discrimination based on sexual orientation is not prohibited by Title VII.  As...

Discrimination Based on Gender Non-Conformity Is Prohibited by Title VII; Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation Is Not

In Evans v. Georgia Regional Hospital, 2017 WL 943925 (Mar. 10, 2017), the Eleventh Circuit considered an issue that has been the subject of much judicial and academic debate in recent years:  How does Title VII’s prohibition on discrimination “because of . . . sex” apply to claims of LGBT discrimination?  Perhaps unsurprisingly, the court was sharply split on the answer, with each...

Unlawful and Non-Competitive Parallel Conduct is Still Insufficient to State a RICO Claim

The Eleventh Circuit relied on Twombly’s heightened pleading standard in affirming a dismissal for failure to state a RICO claim in Almanza v. United Airlines, 2017 WL 957191 (11th Cir. Mar. 13, 2017). The plaintiff Mexican nationals, representing a putative class, were charged a tourism tax by the defendant airlines as part of their airfare, purportedly required under Mexican law,...

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